How to Install Software on a Computer

The installation process for software depends on your operating system and the program you are installing. As a result of these many combinations, we have created the steps below as a general guideline. The following does not cover errors during the installation process, as they are too vast for one document. Search on our site for further information on errors during the setup.

General tips

  • Make sure your computer meets the system requirements of the program, game, or utility you are attempting to install.
  • The manual or readme file contains exact instructions on how to install a program and are in the same directory as the installation files.
  • When installing a program, utility, or game, it is always a good idea first to close or disable any other programs that are running.
  • After installing a new program, if it prompts you to reboot the computer, do it.

 

Microsoft Windows users

How to install from a CD or DVD

Many software titles, games, and utilities have an AutoPlay feature. This feature automatically starts a setup screen for the software when the CD or DVD is inserted. If your program contains this feature, follow the steps that appear after inserting the disc into the computer.

If AutoRun is disabled, or unavailable on your disc, follow these steps:

  1. Open My Computer.
  2. In the My Computer window, open the drive that contains the installation files. For example, if the files are on the CD-ROM drive, open the D: drive or letter of your CD-ROM drive.
  3. In the drive that contains your files, locate either the executable setup (i.e. “setup.exe”) or install file. Double-clicking on this file starts the installation process. If there are multiple setup or install files, locate the executable file or double-click each setup or install file until you find the file that starts the installation.

Install a CD on a computer with no disc drive

Some of the new computers may no longer have a disc drive. If your computer does not have a disc drive try installing what is on the CD from the Internet. Computer drivers, software for hardware devices, and some games and other programs are available for downloaded and can be installed from a download.

If the program is not available for download, copy all of the CD or DVD contents to another drive on another computer. For example, you could copy the contents of the disc to a USB flash drive and then install the program from the USB flash drive.

How to install from a Download

  1. Download the program from the website providing the program.
  2. Open the download folder.
  3. If the file you downloaded is an executable file, double-click the file icon to start the setup process. If the downloaded file is compressed (e.g., .zip), you must extract the file’s contents before setup can begin. Fortunately, this function is built into most versions of Windows.
  4. Once the files are extracted, double-click the setup to install.

How to install from a USB flash drive

  1. Open Windows Explorer or My Computer and find the USB drive that is often the last drive letter.
  2. Once the drive is opened find the setup or executable file, double-click the file icon to start the setup process.

 

Installing from MS-DOS or the Windows command line

Users installing a program from Microsoft DOS should have a basic understanding of the MS-DOS commands. If you are unfamiliar with any of the commands listed below, click the link to get additional information on that specific command.

  1. Before installing a program in MS-DOS, you must switch to the drive or directory that contains the installation files. If you are installing a program from a CD or diskette, switch to that drive. If the installation files are located in a different directory, use the dir command to list directories and the cd command to switch directories.
  2. Once you are in the directory or drive that contains the installation files, run the executable for setup. Many times this can be done by typing setup or install at the prompt to start the installation. If both of these commands give a bad command or file name error message, type dir *.exe or dir *.com or dir *.bat. These commands list any executable files found in the directory or drive. If any files are listed, execute these files to run the installation or setup of the program. If no files are listed when typing all three of the above commands, you’re in the incorrect directory or drive letter for that program.
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How to Update Drivers in Windows 10

(Image credit: Microsoft)

Windows 10 automatically updates any new drivers needed for your computer. You can set up to check updates automatically or check updates at your convenience. If you would like to manually update a driver, you can do so in the Device Manager. Here’s how it’s done.

Regular Update:

1) Click Start in the lower left corner.

(Image credit: Microsoft)

2) Click the gear icon to open the Settings window.

(Image credit: Microsoft)

3) Scroll down to see more settings.

(Image credit: Microsoft)

4) Click Update & Security.

(Image credit: Microsoft)

5) In the right pane click Check for updates.

(Image credit: Microsoft)

6) As the updates download, click on Change active hours.

(Image credit: Microsoft)

7) Set the hours when you do not want the computer to restart.

8) Click Save. The drivers will be installed and ready to go after the restart.

(Image credit: Microsoft)

Manual Update:

1) In the search box on the Toolbar, type Device Manager.

(Image credit: Microsoft)

2) Click Device Manager in the search options.

(Image credit: Microsoft)

3) Click on a group of devices in the list.

(Image credit: Microsoft)

4) Right-click on a specific device that needs driver update.

(Image credit: Microsoft)

5) In the menu that opens up, click Update driver.

(Image credit: Microsoft)

6) In the Update driver window, click Search automatically for updated device software. If a newer driver is available, it will be downloaded and installed.

(Image credit: Microsoft)
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Xbox Series X: Specs, Price, Release Date, Rumours and How it compares to Gaming Laptops

Microsoft’s next console, the Xbox Series X, will arrive in late 2020. The next-gen console promises to bring improved graphics, faster load times and more connectivity options to gamers, along with a handful of other compelling features.

While we’re several months away from the launch of Xbox Series X, Microsoft has already revealed a surprising amount of information about the console, including its name, design and even early game launches. Based on what we know, the Series X could be an excellent alternative, or complement, to one of the best gaming laptops.

But there’s still much we don’t know about Series X, so we’ve compiled the official details Microsoft has revealed along with the most credible rumors to give you a comprehensive picture of what to expect when the console releases in late 2020.

Here’s what we know so far about the Xbox Series X.

 

Xbox Series X name and release date

Formerly known as Project Scarlett, the console’s official name is Xbox Series X. Microsoft announced the name (and other details) at the annual Game Awards in a move that shocked fans and media alike.

(Image credit: Microsoft)

Microsoft says Xbox Series X will arrive Holiday 2020. Yes, the next Xbox will land in stores next year.

We probably won’t have a specific date until its official announcement, but we can be fairly certain of a November launch. Why November? Looking at the release date of previous consoles, the original Xbox launched on Nov 15, the Xbox 360 and the Xbox One were both launched on Nov 22 and the Xbox One X was made available on November 7.

We’d be surprised if Microsoft broke this trend for anything other than a late October release. After all, we need the console to ship in time to place it under the tree on December 25.

 

Xbox Series X price

Pricing will be an important piece of the Series X’s commercial success. While we don’t know exactly how much the console (or consoles) will cost, Microsoft promises to not repeat the same mistakes it made with the Xbox One.

“I would say a learning from the Xbox One generation is we will not be out of position on power or price,” Phil Spencer, Microsoft’s Xbox and gaming chief, said in an interview with The Verge.

When the Xbox One launched, it was sold with a 500GB hard drive, a controller and a Kinect sensor for an eye-popping $499. That made the Xbox One at $100 more expensive than the PS4 ($399). If we had to guess, the next console will cost between $350 and $550.

If there are two versions, the entry-level model would likely be near the bottom range while the Xbox Series X could be closer to the high range.

 

Xbox Series X specs

Microsoft gave us the name of the console and even showed us the design, but it wouldn’t confirm specs. Fortunately, we already have a pretty good idea of what the Series X will be packing.

Before we get into the details, it’s worth mentioning that some rumors claim there will be not just one, but two separate versions of the upcoming Xbox: a lower-end SKU nicknamed “Lockhart” and a premium model internally named “Anaconda.”

This comes from Windows Central’s Jez Corden who cites “multiple sources” but also cautions to take the leaks with “a pinch of salt” until they are confirmed by Microsoft.

The report claims that Microsoft is targeting around 12 teraflops (TF) of power in the higher-end Xbox Series X, or twice that of the Xbox One X (the current most powerful console) and many times greater than the Xbox One S. The lower-end “Lockhart” console will slot between the Xbox One X and One S in terms of power, with 4 teraflops of computing power.

Shifting to official news, the Xbox Series X will feature a custom AMD Zen 2 processor with a Navi GPU that supports ray tracing, frame rates at up to 120 frames per second, 8K resolution support and the fastest GDDR6 memory, along with variable refresh rates.

We don’t know the exact components powering the console (or consoles) but reports suggest it will have an eight-core chip with 16GB of RAM, 13GB of which will be allocated for games (the other 3GB will go to the OS).

Spencer told Gamespot that Microsoft wants the next console to run games at 4K resolution at 60 frames per second. If it hits that mark, expect a significant leap in fidelity along with a smoother gaming experience.

Ray tracing could be critical in making next-gen games look better than ever. For those who aren’t familiar, ray tracing is a rendering technique that simulates how light bounces off an object. The result is lighting effects and shadows that look practically photorealistic.

The Xbox Series X will use a custom SSD that is said to be 40x faster than the one in current models. That drive is rumored to be an NVMe SSD fast enough to make load times a thing of the past.

Xbox Series X games

The next Xbox won’t be released for another year, but we’re starting to get a clear picture of its launch titles.

(Image credit: Microsoft)

There are only a few confirmed games coming to Series X, but they’re the type of exclusives that will make consoles fly off shelves. The game on everyone’s mind is Halo Infinite, the next journey for the beloved soldier, Master Chief. So far, we’ve only seen a teaser trailer shown at E3 2018 and a brief glimpse of the faceless protagonist in the Xbox Series X announcement video.

When Microsoft unveiled the Xbox Series X, it did so alongside the reveal of Senua’s Saga: HellBlade 2, which became the first game officially announced for Xbox Series X. The footage shown at The Game Awards look absolutely stunning and was captured directly on the console in real-time.

There are no other confirmed titles, but we can speculate what is coming to the next Xbox based on the release dates of upcoming titles. Tom Clancy’s Rainbow Six Quarantine was confirmed at E3 2019 then delayed until 2020-2021. Given the new release date, we’d be surprised if Rainbow Six Quarantine wasn’t available on both current and next-gen consoles. The same goes for Gods and Monsters and Watch Dogs: Legion, both of which were delayed into 2020-2021.

Cyberpunk 2077, one of the most anticipated upcoming games, could also come to next-gen consoles. CD Projekt Red president Adam Kicinski said to VG247 last year, “The game is developed in such a way that it can use very powerful future equipment, but I can not tell you more beyond that today, as no future generation of consoles have been announced so far.”

That doesn’t confirm anything, but it certainly suggests an intent to bring Cyberpunk 2077, which is set to be released on April 26, 2020, to Xbox Series X and the PS5.

Bethesda, the studio that brought us The Elder Scrolls and the Fallout franchise is set to release Elder Scrolls VI and Starfield, although details on those titles are sparse.

EA confirmed that Dice will have extra time to make Battlefield 6, and that the upcoming first-person shooter would arrive on next-gen consoles. Specific consoles weren’t named but we’d be shocked if the Xbox Series X wasn’t one of them.

 

What about virtual reality?

The next Xbox will not support virtual reality. While Microsoft has championed VR on PCs, the company is less keen about its place on consoles.

Xbox lead Phil Spencer said an interview with Stevivor that “nobody is asking for VR” and that customers know to go to PC if they want to play VR.

He went on to say “nobody’s selling millions and millions [of VR units]…“I think we might get there. But yeah, that’s not where our focus is.”

if you want to play VR games on a console then buy a PlayStation 5 as Sony is expected to double-down on the budding technology with a PlayStation VR 2 headset.

 

Xbox Series X vs gaming laptops

The AMD Navi GPU powering the Xbox Series X is expected to rival Nvidia’s RTX 2080 GPU, which means it should be able to keep up with the best laptops when it comes to graphics performance.

Alienware’s Area-51m gaming laptop played Rise of the Tomb Raider at 92 frames per second while the Asus ROG Mothership notched 84 fps at 1080p resolution on Very High settings.

Unless the Navi GPU somehow blows the doors off the RTX 2080 powering those beastly gaming rigs (we doubt that), the Xbox Series X will need to dial down the settings to reach Microsoft’s 4K at 60fps goal. Still, what Microsoft is claiming can’t be ignored: the Xbox Series X will be crazy powerful and should offer better graphics-per-dollar than any gaming laptop on the market.

 

Xbox Series X design

We already know exactly how the Series X looks about a year before it’s set to launch. The console’s simple rectangular “tower” design is reminiscent of a desktop PC.

There really isn’t much to the design, which is exactly why it’s so bold. Microsoft is replacing the aggressive angles and odd shapes of previous consoles with a refined, clean aesthetic that follows the same design principles as its laptops.

On the front of the Xbox Series X is an illuminated Xbox logo and a disk slot, which will be a relief to folks who still buy physical copies. The top of the console is more interesting. Hiding under a centered top grille is a bright green circle. It’s hard to tell from the reveal trailer, but it appears to be green LEDs or a painted component.

There is a heated discussion about the Xbox Series X’s size. It looks massive in the renders but the folks at Gamespot say the console is three times taller than the new controller and about as wide. That makes the Series X relatively small, but still potentially problematic if you’re trying to fit it in an entertainment center.

It helps that the Xbox Series X can be positioned vertically or horizontally. Also, the larger size allows for a single, massive fan that pushes hot air out the top. As a result, the Xbox Series X should be no louder than the Xbox One.

“There’s always this tension between design and the kind of acoustics and cooling and function of the console,” Spencer told Gamespot, “and we were not going to compromise on function. I’m just incredibly impressed with the design that they came back with.”

(Image credit: Microsoft)

Xbox Series X controller

While the console is daring in its simplicity, Microsoft made only minor updates to the next-gen controller.

At first glance, the Series X controller looks identical to the one for the Xbox One. There are some minor but important differences. The biggest update is the addition of a share button. Located in the center of the new controller, the new button will let Xbox gamers instantly send content to friends with the press of a button, much as you can do with the PS4’s DualShock 4.

Other updates we won’t notice until we’ve gotten our hands on the new controller include a new hybrid D-pad and improved input latency, so there is no delay between when you press a button and what happens in the game. The new controller is also a touch smaller than the previous, which Microsoft says will be more comfortable for most people.

Microsoft is making up for past mistakes with decisions that benefit gamers. Not only is the old Xbox controller compatible with the new Xbox Series X but the new controller is backward compatible with the Xbox One.

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HP Gaming Pavilion 15-dk0046nr Review

A solid laptop for an affordable price

 

OUR OPINION

The HP Gaming Pavilion 15 offers stellar performance and battery life at an affordable price.

FOR

  • Affordable
  • Solid gaming and overall performance
  • Runs cool while gaming
  • Great battery life

AGAINST

  • Dim, somewhat dull display when compared to costlier ones

The HP Gaming Pavilion 15-dk0046nr is an entry-level gaming laptop with either an Intel Core i5 or Core i7 processor and an Nvidia GeForce GPU, with an agile SSD and great battery life, all wrapped up in a striking, fairly portable design.. However, the dim, somewhat dull display does the laptop and gamers a minor disservice. Still, its combination of specs, power and endurance places the laptop as part of the top cheap gaming laptops under ₦400,000.

HP Gaming Pavilion 15-dk0046nr Price and Configuration Options

The ₦321,000 base model of the HP Gaming Pavilion 15-dk0046nr has an Intel Core i5-9300H CPU, 8GB of RAM, a 256GB PCIe NVMe M.2 SSD and a Nvidia GeForce GTX 1050 GPU with 3GB of VRAM. The ₦365,000 model reviewed here, the 15-dk0046nr, has an Intel Core i7-9750H processor with 12GB of RAM, a 256GB PCIe NVMe M.2 SSD and an Nvidia GeForce GTX 1650 GPU with 4GB of VRAM.

Meanwhile, the ₦360,000 model gives you an Intel Core i7-9750H CPU, 8GB of RAM, a 256GB PCIe NVMe M.2 SSD and a Nvidia GeForce GTX 1660 Ti GPU with 6GB of VRAM.

Design

One thing’s for sure – the Pavillion doesn’t look like the typical gaming laptop. Instead of the tired black-and-red motif, the laptop has black with emerald accents. And if you really want to step off the beaten path, you can get the system with purple flourishes. Opening the laptop reveals a green backlit keyboard with some funky polygon-shaped speakers.

 

HP Gaming Pavilion Laptop 2019

(Image credit: Laptop Mag)

The HP Gaming Pavilion 15-dk0046nr weighs 5 pounds and measures 14.2 x 10.1 x 0.9 inches.

Ports

There is a decent amount of ports on the Pavilion 15.

HP Gaming Pavilion Laptop 2019

(Image credit: Laptop Mag)

On the left side of the laptop is a USB 3.1 Type-A port, a USB 3.1 Type-C port, HDMI port, an Ethernet RJ-45 port and an SD media card reader.

HP Gaming Pavilion Laptop 2019

(Image credit: Laptop Mag)

On the right side, you’ll find an additional two USB 3.1 Type A ports and jacks for the headphones and power.

Display

The HP Gaming Pavilion 15’s 15.6-inch, (Full HD) 1920 x1080 screen isn’t the brightest or the most colorful compared to the 4k display, but it delivers great image quality nonetheless, smallest details in pictures and scenes (such as the intense bright green of blaster fire) really pops.

HP Gaming Pavilion Laptop 2019

(Image credit: Laptop Mag) 

In terms of brightness, the Pavillion averages 241.2 nits. Additionally, its sRGB gamut percentage was 65.8%

 

OTHER HP LAPTOPS

Keyboard and Touchpad

The keys on the HP Gaming Pavilion’s keyboard are snappy and responsive. You can type faster than you normally would with this HP laptop’s keyboard.

The 2.4 x 4.6-inch touchpad delivered firm, springy feedback. Still, Windows 10 gestures works smoothly, no input delays.

HP Gaming Pavilion Laptop 2019

(Image credit: Laptop Mag)

Audio

Regardless of the volume, every sound comes out loud and clear from the laptop’s Bang & Olufsen dual speakers, be it jazz or opera, or any sound at all. The voicings, instrumentations will come out clear, no noice.

HP Gaming Pavilion Laptop 2019

(Image credit: Laptop Mag)

Gaming, Graphics, and VR

The Pavilion 15 packs an Nvidia GeForce GTX 1650 GPU with 4GB of VRAM. At the laptop’s highest graphical settings (1080p with Ultra settings), modern graphical marvels such as “Far Cry New Dawn” and “Hitman” averages out at 54 frames-per-second and 57 fps, respectively.

HP Gaming Pavilion Laptop 2019

(Image credit: Laptop Mag)

 

On the virtual reality front, this HP gaming laptop averages 5.9 fps on the SteamVR Performance test.. It’s enough to top the 5.3 average.

Performance

Open plenty browser tabs, play YouTube videos on all those tabs, i can assure you that you can still play games smoothly without lagging.

The Pavillion 15 takes as little as 10 minutes and 42 seconds to transcode a 4K video to 1080p.

When it comes to file transfer speed, the HP Gaming Pavilion’s 256GB SSD copied 4.97GB in 14.5 seconds, which is a transfer rate of 351 megabytes per second.

Battery Life

For a gaming laptop, even an entry-level system, the HP Gaming Pavilion 15 has a pretty long battery life. The system lasted 5 hours and 26 minutes on our battery test, which consists of continuous web surfing at 150 nits of brightness.

Bottom Line

Overall, the HP Gaming Pavilion 15-dk0046nr is not to be slept upon, it’s a budget system that equally satisfies your need.

The slightly USA used is available at 250,000 HERE

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The Difference Between SSD (Solid State Drive) and HDD (Hard Disk Drive)

SSD vs HDD – Battle of the Drives

Welcome to our SSD vs HDD guide, where we’ll look at the pros and cons of traditional hard drives (HDD) and solid state drives (SSD) to help you choose which one is the best for your needs.

When you’re looking to buy a new computer or laptop, or if you’re researching ways to upgrade your machine, you’ll see a lot of references to both hard drives and SSDs, but which one is best for you?

Here we’ll compare the two storage mediums, look at which tasks they excel in, and which ones they’re not so good at.

If you’ve got a desktop PC, then you’ll have the luxury of being able to install both types of hard drive at once. If you go down that route, this guide will help you identify the best ways to use those drives to maximize their performance.

Before we dive into comparing SSD vs HDD technology, let’s take a quick look at each type of drive.

What is a traditional hard disk drive (HDD)?

If you have a desktop PC it will most likely have a traditional hard disk drive, on which the operating system, along with any applications you install, and your files and folders, are stored.

A traditional hard drive contains a circular disc – known as a platter – that stores your data. The disc spins, allowing the read-write arm to read data on the disc (or write data to it) as it passes.

The faster the platter spins, the faster the hard drive works, which can impact how quickly your operating system responds, and how long it takes applications installed on the drive to load and open.

Older hard drives use an IDE port to connect to the motherboard of a PC, but most modern hard drives use a SATA connection. The most recent version of SATA, SATA III, is found on modern motherboards, and enables the fastest possible data transfers for a HDD.

What is a solid state drive (SSD)?

A solid state drive (SSD) is newer storage technology, but it’s still been around for a while now, and if you have a modern laptop, it’s likely that it uses an SSD.

As the name suggests, an SSD – unlike a traditional hard drive – has no moving parts. Instead, it uses NAND flash memory. The more NAND (Negative-AND) memory chips an SSD has, the more storage capacity it has. Modern technology allows SSDs to have more NAND chips than ever, which means SSDs can have capacities similar to HDDs.

Many SSDs come with SATA III ports, which means they can be easily installed in place of a HDD, and many also come in the 2.5-inch format that smaller hard drives also come in. However, the maximum data throughput of SATA III is 600MB/s, and while this is fine for HDDs, SDDs are capable of much faster speeds, which means if you have an SSD with a SATA III connection, the drive’s performance is actually being held back by its SATA connection.

To avoid that bottleneck, you can get SSDs that have a PCIe connection. These drives slot into the PCIe lane of a motherboard, enabling much faster speeds. However, if you have a smaller motherboard, or you use your PCIe lanes for other devices, such as graphics cards or sound cards, then you may not want an SSD taking up a lane.

Another increasingly common connection for SSDs is the M.2. If your laptop uses an SSD, it’s most likely using an M.2 connection, and most modern desktop PCs have motherboards with an M.2 port. M.2 SSDs are typically smaller than other SSDs, which means they can be easily installed without impacting your other components.

NVMe (Non-Volatile Memory Express) is the newest SSD technology, and offers incredibly fast data transfer speeds.

SSD vs HDD: price

When you’re choosing between an SSD and HDD, the first big difference you’ll notice at first is the price. SSDs are typically more expensive per gigabyte than traditional hard drives.Advertisement

However, it’s worth noting that some SSDs are more expensive than others. Older SATA III SSDs are cheaper than M2 and PCIe SSDs, and because the technology has been around for a while, certain SATA III SSDs aren’t all that more expensive than a traditional hard drive.

If you want the most capacity for the least amount of money, HDDs are the way to go. Manufacturing processes for traditional HDDs mean they’re now relatively cheap to produce, which makes them more affordable.

You can get some large HDDs for very low prices, but if you’re keeping important data on the drives, it’s best to check out user reviews and reports about their reliability.

SSD vs HDD: capacity

Closely tied to the price when comparing SSDs and HDDs is the capacities of the drives. Generally, if you’re after a lot of storage space, HDD is the way to go.

HDD capacities range from 40GB up to 12TB for commercial hard drives, while there are even larger capacities for enterprise use. These days you can get a 2TB hard drive for an affordable price, which offers you plenty of space. HDDs around the 8TB to 12TB size are primarily used for servers and NAS devices, where you need a lot of space for holding backups.

Generally, we’d recommend having several smaller hard drives rather than a single large hard drive. This is because if the drive fails, you may lose all your data – if your data is held across several drives, if one drive fails, you won’t lose everything.

So, HDDs are good for storing lots of large files, which makes them good for holding photos, videos and games.

In the past SSDs generally weren’t capable of such large capacities, but thanks to advances in technology you can now get SSDs with terabytes of storage. However, this comes at a premium, and large SDDs often come with prohibitively high price tags.

If you can, it’s a good idea to go for a smaller SSD, maybe around 128GB–256GB, to hold programs such as your operating system, for which you want to take advantage of the SSD’s higher speed, and then use a HDD to store other files where speed isn’t as important.

SSD vs HDD: speed

In the match-up between SSDs vs HDDs, speed is where we really begin to see a difference. Solid state drives have always been much faster than traditional hard drives, but with SSD technology advancing all the time, and the SATA III bottleneck removed, the difference is now starker than ever.

First, let’s look at HDD speeds. Because these drives using a spinning platter, the speed of the drive is largely dependent on the RPM (revolutions per minute) the drive is capable of – and the higher the RPM, the faster the drive can perform. Many budget hard drives have an RPM of 5,400 RPM, which is the slowest speed modern hard drives are capable of – you’re better off going for a drive that can achieve 7,200 RPM, which is what most modern HDDs will be rated at.

You can get higher-RPM drives, up to 10,000 RPM and even higher, but these are rarer and more expensive.

SSD and HDD speeds are measured in MB/s (megabytes per second) for both read (how fast the drive can read data) and write (how fast data can be written to the drive).

There are other factors in play that determine HDD speeds, such as capacity, but in general a SATA III hard drive at 5,400 RPM will have speeds of around 100MB/s, while a 7,200 RPM will be 150MB/s.

Because SSDs don’t have any moving parts their speeds aren’t dependent on RPMs, but on the technology – and the data connection – of the drive.

A solid state drive with a SATA III connection should achieve around 550MB/s read and 520MB/s write speeds, though some will be faster – but will max out at 600MB/s.

So, even with a SATA III connection, which limits the speed of SSDs, you’re getting around four times the speed of traditional hard drives. However, if you use one of the better-optimized connections for SSDs, the speed difference really opens up.

Average speeds for PCIe/M.2 SSDs range from around 1.2GB/s up to around 1.4GB/s – and if you’ve got the budget there are even some that can reach 2.2GB/s.

So, you’re looking at around 10 times the speed if you go for one of these SSDs. When it comes to speed and performance, SSDs are definitely the way to go.Advertisement

SSD vs HDD: other considerations

There are other things you should consider when thinking about whether to buy an SSD or HDD. For example, because SSDs don’t have any moving parts they’re more robust, which makes them a better choice for laptops and other mobile devices.

An SSD can also use less power than a HDD, which means laptops may benefit from longer battery lives when using an SSD – although this will depend on the kind of SSD you use, and what you use it for.

So is an SSD or a HDD best for you? While SSDs are faster, more robust and more power-efficient, HDDs are more affordable – especially when it comes to larger capacities.

As we mentioned earlier, if you have the option then it may be worth getting a smaller SSD for your operating system and apps, along with a HDD to store your files. There are also hybrid drives, known as SSHDs, which offer the best of both worlds, with the speeds of SSDs and the capacities of HDDs in a single drive, and which are worth considering if you don’t have the space in your device for multiple hard drives.

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The Difference Between DDR3 (PC3) and DDR4 (PC4)

The two biggest drivers of speed for a PC are Storage (Drives) and RAM. More RAM improves PC performance, not just for hardcore applications like games but also more common apps like web browsers. DDR3 was a giant leap over its predecessor DDR2, and this comparison looks at whether that is true for DDR4 as well.

The DDR4 standard offers higher module density, better reliability, higher transfer rates and decreased voltage thereby providing increased speed and better power efficiency. It is also a standard designed with the future in mind; e.g., it supports 3D stacking of dies with through-silicon-vias (TSVs) which allows increasing module density by stacking up to 8 dies. But in practice users may not experience a noticeable difference in performance when using DDR4 RAM modules available today.

Comparison chart

DDR3DDR4
Voltage1.5 Volts (standard); 1.65 Volts (high performance); 1.35 V (low voltage)1.2 Volts (standard); 1.35 V (high performance); 1.05 V (low voltage)
Speed800 Mhz, 1066 Mhz, 1333 Mhz, 1600 Mhz and 1866 Mhz800 Mhz, 1600 Mhz, 2133 Mhz
Modules240-pin DIMM (same size as DDR2 but are electrically incompatible with DDR2 DIMMs and have a different key notch location). DDR3 SO-DIMMs have 204 pins.288-pin DIMMs but similar in size to 240-pin DDR3 DIMMs. DDR4 SO-DIMMs have 260 pins.
Prefetch Buffer8n8n
Bus clock400-1066 MHz1066-2133 MHz
Internal Rate100-266 MHz100-266 MHz
Transfer Rate0.80-2.13 GT/s (gigatransfers per second)2.13-4.26 GT/s (gigatransfers per second)
Channel Bandwidth6.40-17.0 GBps12.80-25.60 GBps
Release date2007September 2012

DDR3 vs DDR4

Is DDR4 backwards compatible?

Spot the difference: schematic of the physical design of DDR2, DDR3 and DDR4 DIMMs.

Spot the difference: schematic of the physical design of DDR2, DDR3 and DDR4 DIMMs.

DDR4 is not backward compatible with DDR3 motherboards because the physical design of modules (DIMMs) for DDR4 and DDR3 are different.

DDR4 vs DDR3 DIMMs

DDR3 modules use 240 pins and DDR4 DIMMs use 288 pins. Both DDR3 and DDR4 DIMMs are 5¼ inch (133.35 mm) in length but the pins in DDR4 are spaced closer (0.85mm) than DDR4 (1mm).

They are also different in height and thickness — the increased height of DDR4 modules (31.25mm instead of DDR3’s 30.35mm) makes signal routing easier, and the increased thickness (1.2mm vs. DDR3’s 1mm) accommodates more signal layers.

The position of the notch on DDR4 memory modules is also different from DDR3 modules. This prevents accidental insertion of the wrong type of memory because they are not backward compatible.

Module Density

The DDR4 standard allows for DIMMs of up to 64 GiB in capacity, compared to DDR3’s maximum of 16 GiB per DIMM.

Speed

DDR4 is designed for transfer rates of 2.13 to 4.26 GT/s, which is significantly higher than DDR3’s transfer rates of 0.8 to 2.13 GT/s.

DIMM Type Data Rate Module Name Peak Transfer Rate
DDR4-2133 2133 MT/s PC4-17000 17064 MB/s
DDR4-2400 2400 MT/s PC4-19200 19200 MB/s
DDR4-2666 2600 MT/s PC4-20800 20800 MB/s
DDR4-2800 2800 MT/s PC4-22400 22400 MB/s
DDR4-3000 3000 MT/s PC4-24000 24000 MB/s
DDR4-3200 3200 MT/s PC4-25600 25600 MB/s

But this does not always translate to better practical performance.

AnandTech also ran tests comparing DDR3 and DDR4 and concluded that

Overall, comparing DDR4 to DDR3, there is little difference to separate the two. In a couple of small instances one is better than the other, but on those edge cases it might be prudent to say that we cannot make a final decision until we can synchronize the rest of the system, such as the size of CPU caches. When we can perform such tests, we will run some more numbers.

Technical Features

JEDEC, the organization that designs DDR standards lists some technical features of DDR4 on their website:

  • Three data width offerings: x4, x8 and x16
  • New JEDEC POD12 (1.2V) interface standard for DDR4
  • Differential signaling for the clock and strobes
  • Nominal and dynamic ODT: Improvements to the ODT protocol and a new Park Mode allow for a nominal termination and dynamic write termination without having to drive the ODT pin
  • Burst length of 8 and burst chop of 4
  • Data masking
  • DBI: to help reduce power consumption and improve data signal integrity, this feature informs the DRAM as to whether the true or inverted data should be stored
  • 512 K page size for x4 devices: reduces power (less activation power), and extends the usefulness of x4 devices, which allow for more efficient EDC solutions for high-end systems
  • Programmable refresh: Reducing performance penalty of dense DDR4 devices by allowing for refresh intervals ranging from 1x to .0625x the normal refresh interval
  • CRC computation/validation across the data bus: Enabling error detection capability for data transfers – especially beneficial during write operations and in non-ECC memory applications
  • New CA parity for command/address bus: Providing a low-cost method (parity) to verify the integrity of command and address transfers over a link, for all operations
  • Per-DRAM Addressability: Can uniquely select and program DRAMs within a memory structure
  • DLL off mode supported

DDR3 or DDR4: Which one should I choose?

For most consumers the choice will be simple because DDR4 is not backward compatible. If your motherboard was designed for DDR3, then that’s what you can choose. Even if you’re setting up a new PC, you will still choose based on the other components — the CPU and motherboard — of the system.

Some of the latest CPUs from both Intel and AMD support DDR4 SDRAM and some are still designed for DDR3. DDR4 would have been a good way to future-proof a new PC but chances are DDR3 will continue to be in wide use for the next 1-3 years at least. And future gains in DDR4 performance probably won’t benefit current systems because the clock speeds won’t match.

References

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Etisalat (9mobile) Day and Night Data Plan

How to Subscribe to Etisalat Night Plan

The Etisalat night plan (9Mobile Night Plan) is only available on the Easycliq tariff plan, and only usable between 12:00AM and  5:00AM. The steps to activating the plan are as follow:

  • If you are not Easycliq tariff plan, migrate to the plan by dialing *244*1#.
  • Ensure you have a minimum of  ₦50 on your SIM for the 250MB plan or N200 for the 1GB plan
  • Dial  *229*10*10# to activate the plan for 250MB or *229*3*11# for the 1GB plan

How to Subscribe to Etisalat(9mobile) Data Plans

PlanValidityOpt-in Code
Daily Bundles
10MB @ ₦5024 Hours*229*3*8#
40MB @ ₦10024 Hours*229*3*1#
Weekly Plan
150MB @ ₦2007 Days*229*2*10#
Weekend Plan
1GB @ ₦500One Weekend*5995*2#
Monthly Bundles
500MB @ ₦50030 Days*229*2*12#
1GB @ ₦1,00030 Days*229*2*7#
1.5GB @ ₦1,20030 Days*229*2*25#
2.5GB @ ₦2,00030 Days*229*2*8#
3.5GB @ ₦2,50030 Days*229*2*26#
5GB @ ₦3,50030 Days*229*2*9#
11.5GB @ ₦8,00030 Days*229*2*5#

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Airtel Night Plan, Data Plan, Customer Care

To enjoy the very cheap Airtel Night Plan, you have to opt-in to tariff plan called Airtel SmartTrybe.

To opt-in to Airtel Night Plan Dial *312#. You get: 30% extra data on bundles of N500 and above purchased in all campuses in Nigeria 1GB for N500. Valid for 7 day.

How to subscribe to Airtel Night Plan

  • STEP 1: Migrate to Airtel SmartTrybe by dialing *312# then reply with 1.
  • STEP 2: After the migration, dial *312#
  • STEP 3: Reply 1 for 500MB for N25 valid from12am – 5am
  • OR: Reply 2 for 1.5GB for N200 valid from12am – 5amEnjoy these night plan from Airtel

How to subscribe to Airtel Data Plan

To get started, Dial *141# OR…

Daily / Weekly Plans

PriceData AllowanceValidityUSSD CODE
N5025MB1 Day*141*50#
N10075MB1 Day*141*100#
N200200MB3 Days*141*200#
N3001GB1 Day*141*354#
N300350MB7 Days*141*300#
N500750MB14 Days*141*500#
N5001GB7 Days*141*502#
N5002GB1 Day*141*504#
N15006GB7 Days*141*1504#

Airtel Customer Care

Simply call 111

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MTN Recharge and Data Plan Codes

MTN Recharge Code | How To Load Airtime On MTN SIM (USSD Code)

You should know that MTN Nigeria recharge codes contain a 12-digit PIN. So, follow the step below for loading airtime n your phone:

  • To load or recharge an MTN line, dial recharge PIN in the following USSD format: *555*PIN# and then Send/Ok. For example, If the airtime PIN is 1111 2222 3333, include *555*111122223333# and press Send or Ok on your phone’s dialler.
  • If successful, you can dial *556# to check account balance.

That’s all!

MTN Data Plans and Subscription Codes in Nigeria

Here are latest MTN Data Plan Prices. You will also see code for checking your MTN data subscription balance.

  • 1.5GB Browsing Plan for Mobile (24/7 30 days) – text 106 to 131 – ₦1000
  • 2GB MTN data plan (24/7 30 days) – text 130 to 131 – ₦1200
  • MTN 3.5GB mobile data plan (24/7 30 days) – text 110 to 131 – ₦2000
  • 6.5GB MTN data plan (24/7 30 days) – text 107 to 131 – ₦3500
  • 11GB MTN data plan (24/7 30 days) – text 116 to 131 – ₦5000
  • 25GB MTN data plan (24/7 30 days) – text 117 to 131 – ₦10000
  • 40GB MTN data plan (24/7 30 days) – text 150 to 131 – ₦15000
  • 1GB MTN Daily (24 hours) – SMS 155 to 131 – ₦350
  • 2GB 2 days Plan (48 hours) – text 154 to 131 – 500 Naira
  • 60GB MTN data plan (24/7, 60 days) – text 118 to 131 – 20000 NGN
  • 120GB MTN data plan (24/7 90 days) – text 133 to 131 – 50000 NGN
  • MTN 100GB data plan (60 days) – text 138 to 131 – 30,000 Naira
  • MTN 150GB data plan (90 days) – text 134 to 131 – 70,000 Naira
  • MTN Daily data plan for mobile, 75MB (24 hours) – SMS 104 to 131 – 100 NGN
  • MTN Daily data plan for mobile, 25MB (24 hours) – SMS 114 to 131 – 50 NGN
  • 200MB 2 days Package (48 hours) – text 113 to 131 – 200 Naira
  • 750MB Weekly browsing for mobile (7 days) – text 103 to 131 – 500 NGN
  • 350MB Weekly browsing for mobile (7 days) – text 102 to 131 – 300 NGN

To check your MTN browsing data balance, SMS 2 to 131.

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Glo Recharge Code & How To Join Any Glo Data Plan

Did you just get a new Glo sim card and haven’t loaded your Glo recharge card because you don’t know the Glo recharge code? Don’t worry, we will show you how to recharge Glo airtime, join a Glo Data Plan, transfer Glo Data and also how to transfer Glo credit.

How To Load Glo Airtime

– To load airtime on a Glo sim, dial the recharge PIN in the following USSD format: *123*PIN# and then Send/Ok. For example, If the airtime PIN is 1111 2222 3333 444, include *222*111122223333444# and press Send or Ok.

How to check Glo balance?

To check your account balance for GLO network, just dial #124# and press the send button on your phone, then Enter 1 and press the send button on your phone again.

To check your account balance for MTN network, just dial *556# and press the send button on your phone.

To check your account balance for Airtel network, just dial *123# and press the send button on your phone.

How To Buy Glo Data Bundles

You want to buy a Glo data plan?. Dial *777# and you’ll see a prompt window showing how you can successfully buy data on Glo.

How To Share Data on Glo

You can buy a data plan and share with your friends and family members. Anyone you share with gets notified via SMS with immediate access to the internet. To ADD people to share dial *127*01* friend’s number # or Send “Share [friend’s number]” to 127.

Or dial *777#, click send, then input 1 and click send, then input 4, and click send, then input 1 and click send, and input the phone number of the Glo subscriber you want to share your data with.

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